State Forensic Science Laboratory (SFSL) - Duties and Responsibilities

Duties and Responsibilities of the Laboratory

Initially, there were only three functional divisions of the laboratory i.e Biological Science, Chemical Science and Physical Science divisions, however, according to the Government Notification No. 8/C-601/2003 – 3368, dated 3rd August 2011, two more divisions were added i.e Operations and Head Quarters. The two newly added divisions are not yet functional. At present, the duties and responsibilities are as under:

  1. Laboratory Analysis of Case Exhibits
  2. Visits to the scene of Crime
  3. Training
  4. Court Evidence

The details of the functional Units are as under:

  1. Biological Science Division:
    The division includes three units – Biology, Serology and DNA Profiling Units

    Forensic Biology Division:

    1. Biology Unit:
      • This is one of the most important functional units of the laboratory.
      • All biological materials such as human tissues including skeletal remains, blood, semen, saliva, fibers and fabrics, vegetable materials and wildlife related exhibits are examined in this unit and reports are sent to the concerned courts.
      • Over the period there has been an astronomical advance in the techniques used
      • Many best practices were also adopted by the unit. The reports are computer generated and many changes were inducted in the work-sheet and the overall scheme of examinations of the exhibits. In the year 2008, PSA Card method had been introduced for examining the seminal stains. This is considered to be one of most advanced techniques used in forensic biology across the globe.
      • The unit has most modern research and routine microscopes, micro-tome and other machines which are regularly used in case examination works.
    2. Serology Unit:
      • The Serology unit was started as yearly as November 2006 with the help of very basic equipment. At present, the unit has best of the facilities to process most difficult and complicated exhibits and as a result of which 1026 cases were successfully reported so far.
    3. DNA Profiling Unit:
      • The DNA Unit has the latest Sequencer and Real Time PCR equipment which enable us to examine most complex samples with high degree of precision and certainty.
      • Several complicated and sensational cases related to rape, rape with murder, homicide, identification of missing persons and paternity dispute cases, etc., were reported by this unit.
      • Tissues analysed by the unit are blood, bloodstains, seminal stains, saliva, hair roots, bones and teeth.
    DNA Extraction LaboratoryDNA Extraction Laboratory Pre PCR Laboratory DNA Sequencer Laboratory

    Chemical Division

    This division includes General Chemistry, Toxicology, Narcotics and Explosive units.

    1. General Chemistry Unit:
      • This unit undertakes examinations of Alcohol, Petroleum Products, and other material exhibits which require chemical examination. This unit also examines exhibits related to Vigilance Trap cases.
      • Latest equipment such as Gas Chromatograph, High Performance Liquid Chromatography, High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer, Gas Chromatograph-Head-Space are extensively used in case examination works.
    2. Toxicology Unit:
      • The Toxicology Division is the most burdened one since it undertakes all chemical examinations of viceral organs, biological fluids such as vomits, stomach wash and other toxic substances such as insecticides and pesticides found at the place of occurrence, food stuff, etc.
      • Latest equipment such as High Performance Liquid Chromatography, High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry are used in the examination of all these exhibits.
    3. Narcotics Unit:
      • All the drugs and psychotropic substances and other substances of abuse such as Opium, Morphine, Heroine, Cannabis, and their various preparations, refilled cigarettes, other synthetic drugs of abuse and narcotic substances including the precursor chemicals.
      • Equipment such as High Performance Liquid Chromatography, High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry are regularly used in examination of case exhibits.
    4. Explosive Unit:

      This unit deals with physical and chemical examinations of the explosive substances, bombs, detonators, Improvised Explosive Devices, boosters, etc.

      Explosive Laboratory

    Physical Science Division

    The physical science division includes the following units:
    1. Ballistics Unit
      • In this unit all examinations related to firearms and ammunition are carried out.
      • The scientists examine effectiveness of a firearm, whether a particular firearm was used for firing or not.
      • In this unit test fire cartridges and bullets are compared to establish that the cartridge and bullet were fired from the suspected firearm or not.
      • The unit also undertakes examination of the Gun Shot Residue collected from the hands and apparels of the firer.
      • Exhibits are also sent to this unit to determine distance and direction of firearm used.
      • At the scene of crime, opinion of a ballistic expert help the investigating officer in identifying the nature, class and type of firearm used. Besides, they also help determining the distance and the direction of fire.
    2. Physics Unit
      • This unit deals with physical examinations of documents, fake currencies, soil, restoration of erased writings and numbers, glass, identification of trace elements, etc
      • Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrograph (ICP-OES) is one of the most sophisticated and latest equipment of the physics unit, which is used for determining trace elemental profile of various substances such as inorganic poisons, gun shot residue, etc.

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